Bastille Day Look at Haussmann’s Paris

Destination: Paris

Book: Paris Reborn: Napoleon III, Baron Haussmann, and the Quest to Build a Modern City by Stephane Kirland. (New 2014)

Here is a book that entertains as it educates, and will give you a peek behind the pretty face of Paris.

My headline repeats the commonly held belief that the shape of Paris today owes its classical beauty to the Baron Haussman.  Naturally, in a project so enormous, there were many players. In Paris Reborn, Stephane Kirkland makes a strong case that Napoléon III should have top billing.

If you read I Always Loved You (reviewed here), you got a glimpse of what it was like to live through the rennovation of Paris in the 19th century. Aside from the disruption of muddy streets and buildings torn down, not everyone was delighted to lose the historic Paris-most notably Victor Hugo, who devotes a lengthy preface to the Hunchback of Notre Dame to the Medieval Paris that was passing away.

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who was elected in a Republican form of government, but wrested power away from the people to become a dictator as Emperor Napoléon III of the Second Empire, wanted to bring Paris up to the standards of London, where he had lived in exile for thirty-three years.

As far back as 1749, Kirkland says, Voltaire had written:

We need public markets, fountains that actually give water, regular intersections, performance halls; we need to widen the narrow and filthy streets, uncover monuments that we can not see, and build new ones to be seen.

Kirkland also quotes a British guidebook to Paris, publised in 1839:

Paris is inferior to most of the other capital towns in Europe as for the width, cleanliness, and general appearance of most of its streets are concerned.

Even new world cities in America had better amenities by the middle of the 18th century.  As Kirkland says:

The air was foul, the drinking water was unsafe, and the traffic ws chaotic and dangerous. The city lacked key amenities, such as a proper market, a sufficient number of bridges, strutured embankments, and a reliable supply of drinking water.

 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was a liberal thinker, intent on changing that, and providing services for the poor and needy as well.

They say that one should never watch two things being made–sausage and laws.  In Paris Reborn, Stephane Kirkland shows us a third–the modernization of a city.  As you are standing on a Paris bridge at twilight, watching the lights twinkle on the Eiffel Tower, or strolling down the Champs Elysées, you don’t want to be thinking about the graft, favoritism, illegal takings by the government, greedy developers, insider dealing, use of brute power by a dictatorship, bribery, and other shifty politics that enabled Paris to become the most romantic city in the world.

Paris at night
Paris at night

On the other hand, I guarantee that you will learn things you did not know about the city, and feel more at home there, after you have read this book.

It was a long, complicated and expensive proposition, but at the end, Kirkland tells us, the Second Empire had

  • built 85 miles of new streets with an average width of eighty feet (three times as wide as the old streets);
  • built 420 miles of sidewalks;
  • increased street gaslights from 15,000 to more than 32,000;
  • increased the number of trees along roads from 50,000 to 96,000;
  • knocked down 27,000 buildings between 1852 and 1870;
  • built a new Opera House;
  • Created the Market of Les Halles;
  • displaced 117,553 families /350,000 people (20% of the population of Paris)
  • constructed and expanded parks
  • planned neighborhoods and streets to complement the new train stations.

Though there were dozens of people involved–architects, artists, developers, financiers, politicians–behind the plans were two main movers.

The Visionary: Napoleon III, who had a wall-sized map hanging behind his desk that showed his vision of a new Paris.

The Enabler: Baron Haussmann, who worked all the angles, from planning traffic patterns to financing with a never-say-die (although frequently compromise) attitude.

Now a book about city planning and politics could be deadly boring, so let me assure you again, emphatically that this Paris Reborn is lively and interesting. It deserves a place in any travelers’ library.

Note: This book was provided to me by the publisher for review.

There are links from book titles and cover to A Traveler’s Library is an affiliate of, so when you shop through our links, we get a few cents. Thanks for the support.

The photo is my own.

Hidden Treasures in Crete


Destination: Crete

Book: Crete by Barry Unsworth (2004)

Barry Unsworth was a prolific novelist and sometimes travel writer from England, who lived in Italy and frequently visited Greece.  Since I share his fascination with the Mediterranean and Mid Eastern countries I’ve reviewed two other books by Unsworth, Pascali’s Island (listed for the Booker Prize) and Land of Marvels. See all his books here.

Mountain Road, Crete
Mountain Road, Crete

I believe, though, that of the books I have read, his memoir of travels called Crete is my favorite.  Ken and I traveled from Athens through the Peloponnese and took a ferry to Crete for a two-night look around one summer.  We immediately realized that two nights was a ridiculously inadequate period to get even a vague feeling for this island full of mysteries and hidden treasures. The next summer we were back, and spent over a week crisscrossing the island in our rental car.

The best known Minoan site in Crete is Knossos. Unsworth explains why it is so striking. “One thing which makes Knossos different from all other Minoan sites on Crete is the reconstructions that were carried out by Sir Arthur Evans…mainly in the course of the 1920s….he used the architectural details he found in fresco fragments to reconstruct some of the buildings….”

Minoan Palace of Knossos, Crete
Recreated Mural at Minoan Palace of Knossos, Crete

Although we touched base with many of the places that Unsworth talks about in this book–seeking out Minoan ruins from the famous Knossos to an isolated Minoan mansion now surrounded by a vinyard–Unsworth and his wife discovered many places that we did not get to.  Hidden shrines to ancient gods tucked away in mountain caves, churches that have morphed from pagan to Christian to Muslim and back to Christian as the island was conquered by the Venetians and then the Turks who, along with the Byzantines, left their mark on architecture.

The island was even taken over by the Germans during World War II. Through all the waves of conquerors, the tough mountain men took to their highlands hideaways  from which they attacked their conquerors.  Crete was never an easy place to subdue.

Lassithi Plain, Crete
Buying oranges from a fierce warrior at the pass to Lassithi Plain, Crete. That’s a knife he wears at his belt with his traditional costume.

Blood feuds in the southeastern portion of Crete bred the fiercest fighters of all, from the region of Sfakia. Of the Sfakia region, Unsworth says “This is a wild and remote region where roads are few, the climate unrelenting, and the living conditions harsh. The atmosphere of abandonment and desolation one sometimes feels here is in a sense the price the people have paid for their indomitable spirit, their refusal to accept a foreign yoke.”

You would never suspect from the peaceful looking town of Chora Sfakia. This is where the boat from the end of your hike in the Samaria gorge–the most dramatic and popular hike of many dramatic paths in Crete– will take you. It is difficult to get to Chora Sfakia any other way than by boat.

Harbor of Sfakia
Harbor of Sfakia on the south side of Crete.

Although you won’t be attacked from the mountains, or in Sfakia today (unless you’re part of a feuding clan), you can run into various difficulties when traveling in Crete.

Drivers, particularly bus drivers, appear to be suicidal.  Some mountain roads are so bad that car rental companies include clauses forbidding travel to those regions. You may have difficulty deciding which of the two caves that were the “birthplace of Zeus” you want to visit.  You may despair of ever finding peaceful and hidden places if you get stuck in the overbuilt north coast resorts or string of beach towns.

We agree with Barry Unsworth that Chania is a charming town, layered with history, and a great base for exploring Crete.

 Cafe in old Chania
Harborside Cafe in old Chania

I was curious whether the charming small hotel we stayed in, the Doma, still exists in Crete, and I was delighted to find out that not only is it still serving customers, it is still run by the two sisters,  Irene Valyraki and Ioanna Koutsoudaki, who were there when we stayed in the historic home twenty years ago. Unfortunately, I don’t know which sister is in this photo with me, sitting in the parlor of the home, which once was an embassy, and was commandeered by the Germans during World War I.

Doma Hotel, Chania
Sitting in the parlour of the Doma Hotel, Chania with one of the owners

Using Unsworth’s Crete as a guide, you can discover those mosques hiding under Orthodox churches, some of the hidden meaning behind the ruins of the Minoans and valuable icons in fascinating monasteries. He says of the Panagia Kira, near Kritsa, “…if obliged to choose among them, to single out one which best exemplifies the atmosphere and the spirit of devotion of medieval Byzantium, I would favor the Panagia Kira.”  And we totally agreed. This small 14th century church is crammed with wonderful art from the 14th and 15th century.

Kritsa, Crete
Postcard image of a 14th century painting from the church of Panagia Kera at Kritsa, Crete

The book starts in Chania, which was also our favorite town.  My only regret is that we used it mostly as a base, driving out each day to a different region, rather than exploring the town in depth. But having read Unsworth’s Crete, I feel that I know Chania much better.

The map at the front of the book has just enough detail to help you figure out where he is as he discusses the hidden treasures of Crete. Unsworth visits several caves that have ties to ancient Greek legends, worship and mysteries. But there are caves that served other purposes as well.


Matala, Crete
Hippies lived in these caves at Matala, Crete in the 60s. A few yards away, over a rise, is a nude beach.

I think Crete is underrated as a destination in Greece.  It has all the best of Greece. Fantastic ancient ruins, interesting history from Byzantine to the present, warm beaches in the south (including the ONLY palm tree grove in Europe), hiking, sailing, scuba diving, parasailing, shopping and FOOD like no where else in the country.

 beach at Vai, Crete
Only European palm trees on beach at Vai, Crete

So what are you waiting for? Once you have read Barry Unsworth’s Crete, I’m sure you’ll be itching to uncover some of those hidden treasures.

Barry Unsworth died in 2012. You can read his New York Times obituary here.  Get more information about visiting Crete here.

Note: All of the potographs here belong to the author–scans of twenty-year-old photos. 

I have included a link to Amazon (with the book cover) so that you can go directly to the on line store and purchase an e-book or print book. I am an Amazon affiliate, so any time you buy something through links on this site, I make a few cents. Thanks for your support.


A Trip to Crete in 1994

Twenty years? YES, it has been twenty years since this trip to Crete but it is as clear as yesterday. A totally memorable trip  Tomorrow, you’ll see a review of a book by Barry Unsworth about his trip to Crete ten years ago, and I’ll add more explanations of the pictures below.

Road Trip in Crete, 1994
Road Trip in Crete, 1994